Revised 5th of August 2006

Indian Ringneck Genetics

Article by: Inte Onsman, Research coordinator
Research & Advice Group

Sex-linked ino varieties

In Indian Ringnecks two different phenotypes produced by the involvement of the sex-linked ino-locus have been recognized known as "yellowhead cinnamon" and "lacewing" whereas the "yellowhead cinnamon" phenotype is the result of the co-dominant behaviour of ino and its allele ino pd in males who are genetically ino pd / ino. The names have been placed in quotation marks because we are in quest for better names.
We propose to change "lacewing" into "pallid" (coloured ino) and to designate this allele as ino pd and to abandon the use of the name "yellowhead cinnamon" completely because it is NOT a separate allele but an intermediate phenotype between pallid and ino. The new proposed name is intend to cover both green and blue series and is based on the most obvious difference between the wildtype and both its sex-linked ino alleles; the pallid colour impression in both green- and blue series. The term "pallid" is already in use in avifauna where it is used for the pallid Harrier [Circus macrourus], the pallid Swift [Apus pallidus], the pallid Cuckoo [Cuculus pallidus], the pallid Scops Owl [Otus brucei] and the pallid Dove [Leptotida pallida]. The allele symbol pd is short for pallid.
This proposal is based on the fact that both previous used names were misleading, for the "lacewing" phenotype shows no laced wings and the "yellowhead-cinnamon" phenotype has nothing to do with cinnamon whatsoever. Besides, the name "lacewing" is in fact a double misnomer because it is in use to designate a sex-linked mutation combination in Budgerigars and in IRN's it is erroneously used to designate one single allele of the sex-linked ino-locus. On the other hand the name "yellowhead cinnamon" only covered the greenseries birds and not the blueseries birds.

Male Ringnecks could be split for ino, pallid, cinnamon-ino type 1 or type 2, or cinnamon-pallid type 1 or type 2 whereas in this case a type 1 has both cinnamon and ino or the ino pd allele linked on one Z-chromosome and type 2 has cinnamon and ino or its allele ino pd unlinked on both Z-chromosomes.
The order of dominance in this multiple allele series is: ino + > ino pd > ino, whereas ino + represents the wild type and ino the most recessive allele.

Possible male mutant phenotypes

1. Z ino / Z ino (homozygous ino)

2. Z ino pd / Z ino (pallid split ino named pallidino)

3. Z ino pd / Z ino pd (homozygous pallid, darker phenotype than 2, males show a darker neck ring.)

4. Z cin_ino / Z cin_ino (cinnamon-ino combo, cinnamon visible in phenotype)

5. Z cin_ino pd / Z cin_ino (same phenotype as 4., possibly somewhat darker, not the same inheritance)

6. Z cin_ino / Z cin+_ino (same phenotype as 1., not the same inheritance)

7. Z cin_ino pd / Z cin+_ino (same phenotype as 2., not the same inheritance)

8. Z cin_ino pd / Z cin_ino pd (same phenotype as 5., probably darker, not the same inheritance)

9. Z cin+_ino pd / Z cin_ino (same phenotype as 2., not the same inheritance)

10. Z cin+_ino pd / Z cin_ino pd (same phenotype as 3., not the same inheritance)

Possible female mutant phenotypes

Note that hens can only be hemizygous for sex-linked genes.

1. Z ino / W (ino)

2. Z ino pd / W (pallid)

3. Z cin_ino / W (cinnamon-ino combo after crossing over)

4. Z cin_ino pd/ W (cinnamon-pallid combo after crossing over)

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